Jute retting process is one of the important responsible factors for quality of jute fiber. Most of the defects arising from conventional retting could be overcome by ribbon retting. The jute fibre comes from the stem and ribbon (outer skin) of the jute plant. Pectinolytic enzymes were found to ret green jute ribbons within 48 h, producing fairly good quality jute fibres (Majumdar et al., 1991). The modern manufacturing industry is facing a great number of challenges to establish green sustainability to lessen the threats formed by decadent civilization gradually for years, is the issue itself to solve with proposed solutions from all over the world can invite further unrecognized problems which may leave the situation unbearable. Pulp yield of conventional retted jute fiber and jutestick was higher at any kappa number. 2012;Haque et al. Bag Size: Height-37cm, Width-35cm, Gusset-18cm. Over retting causes degradation of fibre cellulose while under retting causes incomplete removal of gummy materials viz., pectic substances. Science and Culture 44, 379 Á/381. The retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in slow running water. would be the product of extraction of all possible agriculture based bio-waste, crop residues, stalks, straw etc of It has been widely used as seasoning and condiments in food preparation. The enzymatic retting is now preferred over the traditional methods resulting in formulation of several commercial enzyme preparations like Flaxzyme and Viscozyme. This also reduces environmental pollution to a great extent. Haque et al. Ribbon retting requires lesser volume of water, lesser time, creates lesser environmental pollution, and produces improved quality fibre. Efficient pectinolytic bacteria as well as fungi could be used in retting process. Jute is a rain-fed crop and its cultivation is concentrated in Bangladesh, India, China, and Thailand. Retting is a preferential rotting process to separate the fibre from woody stem without damaging the fibre cellulose. An increase in cellulose and hemicelluloses content was detected along with a decrease in lignin content after bio-processing. Future research needed in this respect has been expressed. The variation of papermaking properties of the produced pulp onretting process was insignificant. Ribbon retting reduces time of normal retting by 4–5 days. The jute fiber comes from the stem and ribbon (outer skin) of the jute plant. The ribbons are coiled and then allowed for retting in water with or without using a microbial inoculum. In ribbon retting, ribbons are stripped out mechanically from the stem of mature jute plants, coiled and allowed to ret under water. Throughout training sessions there were instances where technology was introduced without attention to its usefulness for farmers and fisher groups. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. Moreover, requirement of water for ribbon retting is almost half in comparison to conventional whole plant retting under normal condition. The methods of retting have witnessed technological advances based on intervention of microbial enzymes resulting in better quality of fibers. 17, No. Tables of content are generated automatically and are based on records of articles contained that are available in the TIB-Portal index. The retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in slow running water. All the isolated bacteria as well as fungi possess pectinolytic activity. in jute field covering the ditches with polythene sheets. Jute - an important cash crop of eastern India is traditionally grown for extraction of fibre by a natural microbial process known as retting. On the other hand, increased lumen diameter and a decreased cell wall thickness were observed with the decorticated and water retted bast fibers. The ditches may be filled with clear water from tube well or from any other water sources. The objective of this work was to prepare a steamed treated compressed OPT lumber and evaluate the physical, chemical and biological properties of modified wood. Pineapple leave fibre (PALF) is one of the abundantly available wastes materials of Malaysia, has not been studied yet as it is required. 12, Regent Park, Kolkata-700040, India. In contrast with the ribbon retting of jute (Banik et al. In ribbon retting barks are removed from jute and kenaf plants mechanically or manually in the form of ribbon. Characteristics of Jute Fibre: Jute is a long, soft, shiny fibre that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. The retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in slow running water. This study concludes that comanagement can facilitate local capacity but in order to realize the full potential of this approach we must address the issues of inappropriate technologies for training, the financial barriers to fishers with low cash income, and uneven power relationships among stakeholders, to create an enabling environment for effective modern governance of the fisheries commons. Bundle strength, elongation, and moisture properties were found to improve after chemical treatment. morphological characteristics showed a significantly reduced lumen diameter and increased cell wall thickness after treated with NaOH at 5%. In-situ retting of jute & mesta with microbial formulation 5.2.1. Over retting causes degradation of fibre cellulose while under retting causes incomplete removal of gummy materials viz., pectic substances. This study presents a post-facto evaluation of the local capacity development processes used under co-management of fisheries and other resources of southern Bangladesh. Abstract BBS.2008. : Retting of green jute ribbons (Corchorus capsularjs var ribbons An 7 days, rrjchoderma and Qurvujana took longer period of time (11 days) and other fungi showed insignificant progress of retting (Table IL Fiber strength of This technique involves the application of microorganisms and/or enzymes. They're also a Christmas craft that is simple to make, and the style options are endless.. First, choose a good-quality ribbon. The hemp fibres contain 56.1wt.% of cellulose, 20.1wt.% of pectin, 10.9wt.% of hemicellulose and 6wt.% of lignin. Copyright © 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0926-6690(02)00097-3. A number of other alternative methods such as mechanical decortication, chemical, heat, and enzymatic treatments have been reported for this purpose with mixed findings. In this technique OPT samples were steamed at temperature 130 °C for 2 h before being compressed at high temperature. The optimum temperature is around 34°c, ditches, tanks, beels-haor or in vast. There are two types of retting: stem and ribbon. This also reduces environmental pollution to a great extent. The study shows that corn leaf fiber has good potential in technical textile applications. • Conventional retting practice emits a little bit more nutrients, biogas and residues to the air and water In 2011 Bangladesh Government has introduced ribbon retting method in different areas of the country to ease peeling of jute fibre. Jute is one of Bangladesh’s main cash crops. Phomopsis longanae Chi-Induced Changes in Activities of Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes and Contents of... Effect of calcium rich and alkaline solutions on the chemical behaviour of hemp fibres. Kena fbast fibers were extracted using different methods (crude, decorticated, water retted, 5% sodium hydroxide retted and 5% benzoate retted) and their physicochemical characteristics were investigated. The fibres produced from kenaf using chemical retting processes are much cleaner but low in tensile strength. The retting process is completed in 8 to 30 days, when the barks separate out easily from the stick or wood and the fibres are ready for extraction. Here all possible methods of fiber extraction like different retting Now-a-days a particular method is getting popular called ribbon retting which reduces time of traditional retting by around a week as well as requires less water where jute fibers are stripped out mechanically in ribbon form and then coiled and immersed in water, ... important factor in retting. processes, namely, dew, water, enzymatic, mechanical, and chemical retting, mechanical and alkali methods Malaysia is one of the biggest producers of palm oil in the world but the oil palm wood is considered as waste after final harvesting. The alkali treatment resulted in the removal of lignin, fats, and waxes as well as the disintegration of individual fibers from the retted fiber bunch. A microbial consortium consisting of three bacterial strains isolated from jute retting water with very high polygalacturonase (PG) (5.1–6.0 IU/ml), pectin lyase (PNL) (185.7–203.7 U/ml), xylanase (15–16.2 IU/ml) activity, but devoid of any cellulase activity was used for jute and mesta retting under controlled and farmers’ field conditions. DCE-01 secretes key degumming enzymes: pectinase, mannase, and xylanase, which match well the main non-cellulosic components of jute bast. After harvesting the vegetable crop, i.e., Lady Finger, the effort was made to use the leftover plant biomass to extract fiber, following a similar process of bast fiber extraction. It seems that steaming in combination of compressing at high temperature would enhance the properties of OPTs. They are possibly the world's largest source of lignocellulosic bast fibre which is extracted from plants by a natural microbial process known as retting. Data about traditional jute retting process and ribbon retting process were collected through personal interview of jute growers. Two forms of Both over retting and under retting which are very difficult to control causes production of low grade jute fibre. Direct penetration of host cell secondary walls by the pathogen occurred, but these were degraded to any extent only following intramural invasion. developed jute retting techniques, covering jute ret with water hyacinth, ribboning and ribbon- retting technique (for water scarce areas) etc. The fibers are first extracted by retting. The Tan delta peak height was low for pure phenolic and maximum for 60% PALF phenolic composites. When the jute stalk is well retted, the stalk is grabbed in bundles and hit with a long wooden hammer to make the fiber loose from the jute hurd or core. They were air dried … Jute is one of the cheapest natural fibres 5. Data book on jute. 2007;Das et al. This article is protected by copyright. / Industrial Crops and Products 17 (2003) 183 Á/190, Effect of inoculation of harvested green jute plants with bacterial retting cultures on period of retting and quality of jute. The pH of the post-retting water samples became acidic, and the electrical conductivity (Ec), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and hardness increased. The traditional water retting and chemical semi-degumming methods restrict the development of the jute industry. Jute is one of the bast fibers which has been proposed widely to accept and marketed as eco-friendly raw material for finished goods production, especially textiles. A neural network model was established based on the experimental results, and the optimal processing parameters of degumming were determined finally with genetic algorithm through a fuzzy relationship between the processing parameters and degumming effects. soil and water during retting. Retting, process employing the action of bacteria and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and gummy substances surrounding bast-fibre bundles, thus facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem. leads also to the decrease of the cristallinity index of the cellulose. After bundles of jute are. callistephi race 3 are reported. Though they are very effective as far as their end application is concerned, the availability of those fibres in the near future may get reduced due to depletion of natural resource, i.e., petroleum oil. Interestingly, the extraction methods used in this study produced bast fibers with high cellulose content and low sugar and starch due to the removal of wax, oil, pectin and hemicelluloses. with Ca2+ a stable chelate called “egg-box”, supporting cation adsorption. In this review, author covered the basic information of PALF and compared the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties with other natural fibres. From the socio-economic prospective, PALF can be a new source of raw material to the industries and can be potential replacement of the expensive and non-renewable synthetic fibre. Even though fibers were almost detached from the corn leaves in case of 20 days of retting, the fibers were found to be weak. The retting process is done either with the help of chemicals (N 2 H 8 C 2 O 4 , Na 2 SO 3 , etc.) S. Banik et al. In most cases, the fiber extraction process of bast fibers in water retting is done by the farmers while standing under water. A huge and inexpensive availability of oil palm trunk (OPT) can be a sustainable source of alternative wood for various structural applications, if it can be utilized. Fine filamentous structures, connected to fungal cells, to the vessel lining matter, and to these other elements, extended into host walls. The jute fiber comes from the stem and ribbon (outer skin) of the jute plant. 2 245 retting process due to water scarcity and low fiber quality. cv. The farmers are involved in jute … Transgenic generations, analyzed through Southern, RT-PCR and northern assays showed downregulation of the selected genes. Some jute was brought to Dundee, Scotland where eventually a process was designed to spin jute yarn in large volumes. The organisms could be adopted in industrial application for extraction of jute fibre. different agriculture based biowaste sources. Calcium ions adsorb in a large quantity The fibers are first extracted by retting. After … After the requisite period, the stems and ribbons were washed to extract the fibres. But use of efficient pectinolytic microbial inoculum improves quality of fibre, further reduce the time of retting and the environmental pollution. Bacterial and fungal populations in piled jute samples of Bharat Jute Mill are found to be in the order of 10 8 and 10 5 per gram of fibre, while the same in Budge Budge Jute Mill are in the order of 10 5 and 10 3 per gram of jute fibre respectively. After the retting process, stripping begins women, children usually do this job. In: Proceedings of International Seminar on Jute and Allied Fibres */Changing Global Scenario. A detailed study of chemical, physical and mechanical properties will bring out a logical and reasonable utilization of PALF for various applications. The retting process consists of bundling jute Retting Environment • Jute assimilates about 5.8 ton CO2 from the atmosphere in its lifetime (Rahman and Bala, 2009). a b s t r a c t Four bacterial strains with high balanced polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin lyase (PNL), and xylanase with minimal cellulase activity were used in jute retting. Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer and pesticides. Usually mature stems of harvested jute plants are allowed to ret in pond or ditch water. Fungal isolates are mainly of the genera Aspergillus and, to a lesser extent, of the genus Penicillium and Dendrophoma. Bacterial population in raw C. capsularis jute is found to be in the order of 10 4 per gram of jute fibre and that in raw C. oliforius jute is in the order of 10 5 per gram of jute fibre. The retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in low, running water. This study aimed at reducing the lignin content in jute-a fiber crop, by introducing hpRNA-based vectors for downregulation of two monolignoid biosynthetic genes- cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT). Present address: Crop Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibre, ICAR, Barackpore, India. Bose, R.G., 1969. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Ribbon retting of jute—a prospective and eco-friendly method for improvement of fibre quality. quality fibres, but it is quite expensive. Scarcity of jute retting water in some areas of Bangladesh is one of the major issues. Merits of in-situ 6. Jute fiber can be extracted from jute bast through mechanical rolling (preprocessing), culture of bacteria, soaking fermentation (liquor ratio = 10, inoculum size = 1 %, temperature = 35 °C, and time = 15 h), inactivation, washing, and drying. Pineapple leaf contains 2.5-3.5% strong, white and silky textile grade fibre embedded by a top waxy layer within the leaf. Whole plant retting of jute and mesta with microbial consortium under controlled conditions reduced the retting duration by 7 days for jute, with improved fibre quality i.e. Process The process of manufacturing a particular kind of thread can vary widely, from the spinning of silk to the carding and processing of wool. The fibers are first extracted by retting. Jute—an important cash crop of eastern India is traditionally grown for extraction of fibre by a natural microbial process known as retting. The present paper reviews the important attributes of underexploited okra plant as a fibre source for various textile applications. Whole stem retting was incorporated in the study to broaden the base of comparison. It answers the question of how supportive were the capacity development tools used in implementing co-management. Lignin, a cross-linked macromolecule of hydrophobic aromatic structure, provides additional rigidity to a plant cell wall. The retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in low, running water. Moreover, requirement of water for ribbon retting is almost half in comparison to conventional whole plant retting under normal condition. Retting is a microbiological process and, therefore, the end-point is determined by inspecting a few plants each day from the tenth day onward. 4:50. Globally, white pepper fetches a higher price compared to black pepper due to its lighter colour, preferable milder flavour and pungency. An 18 month study was conducted and six cases were investigated to understand the approaches to co-management programs used to develop local capacity. Corn leaves were collected after harvesting corn and the fibers were extracted by water retting. In addition, the inoculation treatment with P. longanae significantly promoted the activities of CWDEs including pectinesterase, polygalacturonase, β-galactosidase, and cellulase. Jute fiber pulp consumed 15 kg ClO2/MTof pulp to produce brightness of 81–86%, while jute stick consumed 30 kg ClO2/MT of pulp to produce brightness 85%. Jute retting process is one of the important responsible factors for quality of jute fiber. The revision step is a process of its own and there’s no “right” number of revisions that produces strong writing. In ribbon retting, barks are removed from jute in the form of ribbon. colour, lustre, fibre strength (27.0–28.1 g/tex, fineness (2.7–2.8 tex) and fibre recovery by 13.8–15.24 % over control. This treatment, Light and transmission electron microscope studies of naturally infected or inoculated staghorn sumac plants by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Women and children usually do this 5 Proofreading When you feel confident about your revisions, move on to the last writing process step: proofreading. Jute and kenaf are among the annually renewable fibre crops mainly grown over tropical and subtropical Asian countries. There are two types of retting: stem and ribbon. Jute retting process is one of the important responsible factors for quality of jute fiber. But use of … 5260 RETTING PROCESS OF SOME BAST PLANT FIBRES AND ITS EFFECT ON FIBRE QUALITY: A introduced ribbon retting in Bangladesh for jute-retting process. The ribbons are coiled and then allowed for retting in water with or without using a microbial inoculum. Bacteria and fungi with xylanase activity were isolated from the bamboo retting system. The physio-chemical properties of fibres were analysed for its different uses. Though ribbon retting is more advantageous over the traditional method in terms of retting duration, water content and environmental pollution, ... Quality of fiber depends on nature of retting. (2011). A special type of machine with metal knife scrapper roller and serrated roller has been developed and used to scrap out the waxy layer and at the same time macerating and breaking the leaf surface for ease of retting to extract the pineapple leaf fibres. So, ribbon retting is a great promise to produce high quality jute fibre in one hand and a more eco-friendly measure on the other. 2003), during jute degumming process of bacterial strain DCE-01, within 12 h, pH is kept acidic while ORP kept being greater than 0 namely under aerobic status, at 15 h, pH Bacterial population in laboratory bins is found to be in between 10 6 and 10 7 per gram of jute fibre while fungal population is in between 10 4 and 10 5 per gram of jute fibre. The retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in slow running water. In ribbon retting, ribbons are stripped out mechanically from the stem of mature jute plants, coiled and allowed to ret under water. Retting operation was carried out for varying time period namely 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days respectively. Three best combinations were identified that lowered retting period from 18–21 days to 10 days producing high quality fibre in both laboratory and field trial. The farmers are involved in jute cultivation and majority of them use the traditional method and time consuming approach of retting in ponds/canals. Today, pineapple fiber is enormously popular among the composite research community due to its various advantages including its smoothed and scaled morphology, low thickness, firmness, reduced weight, and superior mechanical properties. After the retting process, stripping begins ; women and children usually do this job. In Indian subcontinent, pineapple leaves are wasted after harvesting the fruit, because of technology gap exists in the efficient extraction and lack of knowledge of subsequent processes for value addition to the fibre. Its various mechanical testing characterization values, including tensile strength, spilt tensile strength, flexural strength, impact strength, peeling test, and compressive strength, represent benchmarks compared with other, currently available natural fibers. In the stripping process, non-fibrous matter is scraped off, then the workers dig in and grab the fibres from wit… Ribbon retting conducted in cement retting tank was faster than that in polythene tank. Here we report optimized microbial retting protocol that can lower retting period and produce high fibre quality. The new method of retting launched has been recognized as ribbon retting. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. JUTE BAG 3 The jute fiber comes from the stem and ribbon (outer skin) of the jute plant. There are two types of retting: stem and ribbon. This was due to longer time of retting in the conventional retting process removed more pentosan. Bundling jute stems together and immersing them in slow running water consists of the retting process. The jute fibre comes from the jute plant’s stem and ribbon (outer skin). The microorganisms in dif-ferent combinations of consortia showed synergistic effect resulting in increased PG (35.52–46.61 IU/g cell wet weight), PNL (39.79–72.12 U/ml), xylanase (0.705–0.840 mol/ml/min) and little cellulase (0–0.153 mol/ml/min) activities. But acute shortage of water for retting and the environmental pollution created from conventional system of retting has demanded for new method of retting.The new method of retting launched has been recognized as ribbon retting. The stalk stays submerged in water for 20 days.